Alaska Natives Commission


Volume II

Table of Contents

Alaska Native Physical Health  
History and Structure 5
Overview 5
History of Alaska Native Health and Health Care 6
Behavioral Underpinnings and Other Related Factors 8
Changes in Public Health for Natives in the 1970s 9
Indicators of Current Alaska Native Health Problems 12
Environmental Health 12
Physical and Behavioral Health Indicators 20
A Summary of the Data 34
Population Growth: Alaska Natives in the Year 2000 35
Problems in the System 36
Confronting Hard Choices: Discussion & Recommendations 39
A Communal Problem: A Community-oriented Response 39
Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior: Policy Implications 42
Recommendations 43
Concluding Comments 50
Social and Cultural Issues and the Alcohol Crisis  
Introduction 55
A Time of Transition 55
Overarching Recommendations 56
The Search for Social and Cultural Equity 57
Subsistence: The Cultural Imperative 57
Native Empowerment: Self-Governance 59
Native Empowerment: Self-Reliance vs. Dependency 61
Native Empowerment: Reestablishing a Functional Social Order 63
Social Aspects of Physical Health 64
Alaska Native Education: The Key to Future Survival 66
Alcohol and Alaska Natives 69
Summary 69
Alcohol's Carnage in the Native Community 70
Alcohol and Social Pathologies 73
Findings and Recommendations 75
Economic Issues and Rural Economic Development  
Preface 83
Employment 88
Options, Opportunities and a Solid Foundation of Values 88
Unemployment Statistics 90
Alaska Native Employment and Unemployment: An Overview 91
Employment and ANCSA Corporations: Regional and Village 100
Community Economic Development 104
Village Industry: Success Stories 104
Community Development Quotas 107
Additional Resources for Alaska Native Economic Development 110
Other Economic Development Issues 114
Recommendations 118
Employment 118
Village Businesses and "Cottage Industry" 120
Community Development Quota (CDQ) 120
Limited Entry 121
Bulk Fuel 121
Reindeer Industry 121
Mariculture 122
Alaska Native Education  
Introduction and Historical Background 127
Western Education of Alaska Natives Prior to 1867 127
Western Education of Alaska Natives After 1867 127
Contemporary Background 133
Current Western Education and Alaska Natives, K-12 133
Current Western Education and Alaska Natives, Post-Secondary 139
Findings and Recommendations 143
Principal Findings 143
Recommendations Regarding Alaska Native Education 145
Self-Governance and Self-Determination  
Preface 151
Justice, Law Enforcement, and Corrections 154
Fundamental Values and Influences 154
Problems Related to the Legal System 156
Issues Related to Local Control 168
Recommendations 172
Concluding Comments 178
Summary of Final Recommendations (Part II) 179
Self-Determination (P.L. 93-638) Review 184
Historical Overview 184
Current Contract Status 190
Findings and Recommendations 197
Fish, Game, and Subsistence 201
Regulatory Processes and Outcomes 201
Regionalizing the Fish and Game Boards 201
Limited Entry 203
Reindeer 203
A Myriad Issues 204


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