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"Races of a Questionable Ethnical Type":
Origins of the Jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Education in Alaska, 1867-1885
Pacific Northwest Quarterly, vol. 75 (October 1984), pp. 156-163


*Stephen Haycox is a professor of history at the University of Alaska, Anchorage, where he has taught since receiving his Ph.D. at the University of Oregon. He is working currently on a study of federal and territorial Indian policy in Alaska.

1Theodore Charles Hinckley, "The Alaska Labors of Sheldon Jackson, 1877-1890," Ph.D. dissertation (Indiana University, 1961), 131; Darrell H. Smith, The Bureau of Education: Its History, Activities and Organization (Baltimore, 1923), 5, 47: Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis: Christian Reformers and the Indian, 1865-1900 (Norman, Okla., 1976), 15, 24.

2Richard E. Welch, Jr., "American Public Opinion and the Purchase of Russian America," American Slavic and East European Review, Vol. 17 (1958), 481-94; Jeannette Paddock Nichols, Alaska: A History of Its Administration, Exploitation, and Industrial Development during Its First Half Century under the Rule of the United States (Cleveland, 1924), 23-24; Bobby Dave Lain, "North of Fifty-three: Army, Treasury Department and Navy Administration of Alaska, 1867-1884," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas, Austin, 1974), 7-10.

3Proclamation of March 30, 1867, 15 Stat. 542 (1867).

4"Russian America," 40th Cong., 2d Sess., 1868, H.E.D. 177, Pt. 1, p. 156 (Serial 1339).

5See Davis's report, 40th Cong., 3d Sess., 1868, H.E.D. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 37-40 (Serial 1367), for this and next paragraph.

6Donald J. D'Elia, "The Argument over Civilian or Military Indian Control, 1865-1880," Historian, Vol. 24 (1962), 207-25; Davis, 40 (quotation); 41st Cong., 3d Sess., 1870, H.E.D. 1, Pt. 2, pp. 53-54, 58 (Serial 1446).

7For the Board of Indian Commissioners and for Colyer, see Robert H. Keller, Jr., American Protestantism and United States Indian Policy, 1869-82 (Lincoln, Neb., 1983), 1-2, 4, 18, 32, 79-80; Robert Winston Mardock. The Reformers and the American Indian (Columbia, Mo., 1971), 63, 65-66; and Prucha, 27-28, 35. Colyer's report, which includes responses to inquiries he made and excerpts from official reports on Alaska, appears as appendix D to the Indian commissioner's annual report, 41st Cong., 2d Sess., 1869, H.E.D. 1, Pt. 3, pp. 975-1058 (Serial 1414).

8Colyer, 978, 982-84, 996 (Auric), 1016 (Behring), 1029 (Mongolian), 1033; Claus-M. Naske and Herman E. Slotnick, Alaska: A History of the 49th State (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1979),13-25.

9Colyer, 1029 and 1032 (Dodge), 1042 (Lagrange), 1014 (Louthan), 1002 (last quotation).

10Ibid., 1002, 1003.

11Morgan Sherwood, "Ardent Spirits: Hooch and the Osprey Affair at Sitka," Journal of the West, Vol. 4 (1965), 308-10; Paul S. Holbo, Tarnished Expansion: The Alaska Scandal, the Press, and Congress, 1867-1871 (Knoxville, Tenn., 1983), 37, 66-80; 16 Stat. 359 (1870) (quotation); Lot Morrill to Columbus Delano, Feb. 10, 1872, in "Condition of the Inhabitants of Alaska," 42d Cong., 2d Sess., 1872, H.E.D. 197, p. 7 (Serial 1513); Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Morrill, Lot Myrick."

12Quoted in "Education in Alaska," 47th Cong., Ist Sess., 1882, S.E.D. 30, p. 14 (Serial 1986).

13DAB, s.v. "Delano, Columbus," "Walker, Francis Amasa"; Robert M. Kvasnicka and Herman J. Viola, The Commissioners of Indian Affairs, 1824-1977 (Lincoln, Neb., 1979),135-39; Prucha, 41-45.

14See Walker's report in "Condition of Inhabitants," 3-4, for this and next paragraph.

15Delano to Speaker of the House, March 16, 1872, in "Condition of Inhabitants," 2.

16"Education in Alaska," 17.

17Colyer, 1009, 1002; for model bill see "Education in Alaska," 18.

18Congressional Globe, 42d Cong., 2d Sess., 1872, p. 2957 (quotations); 17 Stat. 189 (1872).

19For Hinton's report, see 42d Cong., 3d Sess., 1873, H.E.D. 1, Pt. 5, p. 418 (Serial 1561); for Hayt's report, 45th Cong., 2d Sess., 1877, H.E.D. 1, Pt. 5, pp. 422-23 (Serial 1800); Kvasnicka and Viola, 155-56.

20Nichols, 59; Ernest Gruening. The State of Alaska (New York, 1954), 33-43.

21Theodore C. Hinckley, "Sheldon Jackson, Presbyterian Lobbyist for the Great Land of Alaska," Journal of Presbyterian History, Vol. 40 (1962), 3-23; idem, "Sheldon Jackson and Benjamin Harrison: Presbyterians and the Administration of Alaska," PNQ, Vol. 54 (1963), 66-74; "Education in Alaska," esp. 20-22; John Eaton, "Sheldon Jackson, Alaska's Apostle and Pioneer," Review of Reviews, Vol, 13 (1896), 695.

2223 Stat. 27-28 (1884) (quotation); Hinckley, "Alaska Labors," 131,136; Stephen Haycox, "Sheldon Jackson in Historical Perspective: Alaska Native Schools and Mission Contracts, 1885-1894," Pacific Historian, Vol. 28 (1984),18-28.

23Prucha, 194; Sheldon Jackson, "Report on Education in Alaska," 49th Cong., lst Sess., 1886, S.E.D. 85, pp. 30-31 (Serial 2339) (in this first extensive report after his appointment, Jackson also asserted [pp. 10-11] that Alaska natives were not Indians); Thomas Robert Hopkins, "Educational Provisions for the Alaskan Natives since 1867," M.A. thesis (University of Texas, 1959), 16, 33. For a new village, see Donald J. Orth, Dictionary of Alaska Place Names (Washington, D.C., 1967), s.v. "Hydaburg."

24U.S. Department of the Interior, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs . . . June 30,1931 (Washington, D.C., 1931),12.